There are so many different ways to describe a cuisine. Providing a list of dishes is one approach. Giving a list of specific foods and ingredients can tell you a lot about a cuisine, too. But another, often more interesting way to describe a cuisine is by elements. You can discuss how the cuisine brings flavors together and how it sources those various flavors. Caribbean cuisine, in particular, is fun to explore in this way. So, without further ado, here's a look at the key elements of Caribbean food and their common sources.
Not all Caribbean dishes are hot, but many are. Often, this spice comes from the Scotch bonnet pepper, a hat-shaped, orange chile pepper that grows throughout the Caribbean. It's really popular in Jamaican dishes, including jerk chicken. Another common chile is the Trinidad scorpion pepper. This red, wrinkly pepper is one of the hottest on earth and is used in fresh salsas, sauces, and bread.
Being that the Caribbean is full of sugar cane plantations, you might assume their cuisine would contain a lot of sweet dishes. But actually, most of the sugar produced in the Caribbean is exported. Some sugar is certainly used in desserts, but it's also common for sweetness to come from natural fruit. Guava duff is an example of a sweet dessert made with guava. And besitos de coco are sweetened with sweetened condensed milk.
In the Caribbean, you'll see cooks use a lot of natural sea salt. And most of that salt comes directly from the Caribbean islands. The Cayman Islands and Bonaire, for example, have long been key players in the salt trade. Most stews, sauces, and dishes in Caribbean cuisine are flavored with salt, which balances the dishes and brings out the other flavors.
Citrus fruits are abundant in the Caribbean, and they're frequently used in drinks and food. You'll see citrus zest added to a lot of sauces and dressings. Most cocktails include an abundance of sliced citrus and citrus juices, too. Even curry dishes are brightened with a hit of citrus juice added at the end.
While these are not all of the elements of Caribbean cuisine, they are certainly some of the key ones. Understanding how they are used and combined will help you grow in your understanding and appreciation of the Caribbean dishes you try at restaurants and cook in your own home.